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Further Reading
Talking with Eliza
Turing's Child Machine
Skinner's Behaviorism
Strong or Weak?
Ambiguous Words
Is it Better to be Strong or Weak?
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This belief has great influence on artificial intelligence. Years have been spent in the search to simulate these alleged components of intelligence, including learning, reasoning, problem solving, perception, and language understanding. This approach to artificial intelligence, which holds that modeling the human mind is necessary for creating a "thinking" computer, is known as "Strong AI."
In contrast, there are AI researchers who focus instead on simulating "intelligence" rather than trying to create it through a model of the mind. These researchers are attempting to create machines which will be perceived as intelligent by their users; their approach is known as "Weak AI." The weak AI approach supports the notion that if something behaves intelligently, and is perceived as indistinguishable from humans, it is intelligent.
Pygmalion was created by the sculptor Galatea for the love of art, Hephaestus' Talos for utilitarian defense. Modern artificial intelligence runs along similar lines, with its high artist-philosophers seeking to unravel the human mind and find our shared emotional and intellectual core, and its engineers - motivated by utility, less than philosophy - working to give machines eyes, ears, and legs, rather than souls. The strong AI proponents are Galateas, seeking to recreate humans in machines. The weak AI proponents are Hephaestuses, making machines which are human-like only as much as it serves to make them useful.
There are, of course, many arguments between the two camps; they differ greatly they differ greatly when answering questions like "what is consciousness" and "what is intelligence."